Anne Frank Diary Reference         to basic people list; to family tree;         to Amsterdam map
 

People in and around Anne Frank's Life: an expanded list
to the basic people list; to a distant people list

Remember, Anne made up false names for people, which the original published diary used. (Also, here is a list of mainly just the helpers.)
    This list is not all-inclusive: that would be almost impossible. In many aspects, this list has a haphazard quality to it, which was unavoidable. Further, most references cover more details about each person than this page can.

Listed alphabetically by last name (American-style — "van" or "de" are seen as part of the last name).

The print references often have more information about the people, they certainly have more information about things in general. Page numbers are usually for The Critical Edition (1989) — the "CE89" pages. (Other pages have abbreviations for their titles — see fully titled references at bottom). Page numbers with dates are diary entries: that date. The bottom of this page has sources of other lists and summaries of people in Anne's life. Those sources form an overlapping superset of this list.

Key to Symbols:
With an emphasis on who they were in Anne's life experience.
#  often mentioned in diary
H  ongoing helper
HR  helped only via Resistance activities
R   Resistance worker
@  hidden in annexe
@  hidden elsewhere
heartthrob  love
relation  relation
Jew in danger  Jew under Nazi rule
other target of Nazis  miscellaneous Nazi target
little kid  little kid
friendly kid  friendly kid/peer
friendly adult  friendly adult
$  father's employee
$  commerce
  authority
Nazi  Nazi
P  diary publication
°  "degree" of separation

underlined death date means they died in a concentration camp.

Notes:
Jew in danger = Jew under Nazi rule. I do not always know who was Jewish, however. Also, some people thus marked also escaped to a safe country.
    Keep in mind that the Nazis pursued other categories than Jews (H, R, other target of Nazis), though Jews were in more danger: while Jews were sent to concentration camps, the others could be sent to prison, labor service, or to concentration camps.

friendly adult friendly kid little kid   Regarding the smile symbols, relativity came into play. A distant friendly face was more readily applied than within her family circle. Distant people simply had to be a friend of the family to get a smile face, while within the family, Anne had to be especially fond of the person to get a smile face (otherwise the symbols would get redundant). Further, the little kid symbol includes a smile because they were probably a nice part of Anne's situation.

° = "degree" of separation, emphasized by fading their texts. This distance is a slippery distinction in some cases. Someone in her family photo album whom she never met fits this description. Examples are someone who didn't work for her father, someone she only met or heard of a few times in calm circumstances, someone she was not dependent on. This symbol always appears before any other symbols. There are several distant people who somehow caught my attention and are related to Anne's life in some way, but were probably too distant from her consciousness for this page.


 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
(Don't forget your browser's find ability.)


$   Blankevoort's Subscription Library
Wartime Address: 62 Zuider Amstellaan
Possibly where Anne's father bought the first diary. (If not, it may have been purchased in a department store downtown called Perrij's — or "Perry's" in English.) Blankevoort was around the corner from where they lived, on Merwedeplein and Waalstraat — fairly recent photo). (FAF p. 32-3; but Anne mentioned Perrij's as a place to buy diaries in CE89 p. 286: 20 Oct 1942 p. 95b; CE89 p. 202)

$
Jew in danger
  Blitz-Roos, Sientje (b: 5 Jan 1897)
An able traveling saleswoman for assorted companies in Amsterdam. She lived two floors below Miep's family's home and occasionally had coffee with Miep's adoptive mother. In 1933, she heard that one of her regular employers, Otto Frank, was looking for temporary office help, and she brought Miep an application. Miep was out of work at the time, and like Otto, could speak German. He hired Miep, first temporary, then permanent. (AFR p. 24-5, 31 — she is called "Mrs. Blik" in that book; an Anne Frank researcher sent her real name, birthdate, and the information below.)
   (Further information: her husband owned butcher shops in the Jewish quarter. They had three children and did not appear in the Dutch Jewry Search, so probably survived the war. But her brother-in-law and his wife were likely killed — if this is them Joodsmonument entry for Berend and Marianne.)

°
P
  Bolkestein, Gerrit (Wartime Location: London)
On 28 March 1944, this Dutch cabinet member spoke on the Dutch News from London ("Radio Oranje"). He anticipated that after the war, it would shed light on the difficulties of the war if people could read wartime letters, diaries, and sermons. This inspired Anne to revisit her old diary entries. By late May, she was rewriting it to clarify, elaborate, and edit. Bolkestein was the Dutch Minister of Education, Art and Science. You can read quotes from his visionary speech in the Critical Edition. (CE89 p. 59-60, 578, 603: 29 March 1944, 14 April 1944)

friendly adult
R
Jew in danger
  Bosch, Lientje "Lin" (nee Brilleslijper) (a.k.a. Lin Yaldati)
She and her younger sister, Jannie, both verified to Otto that Anne and Margot had died in Bergen-Belsen and the approximate date.
    She was the oldest of three children of hard working grocery store owners and she became a dancer and singer. She married Eberhard Bosch and they had a daughter, Kathinka. In 1943, Lientje and her sister, Jannie, combined households, bringing along people that she and Eberhard were keeping in hiding. In the summer of 1944, their home was raided and she threw a wild fit to get the children sent to stay with a doctor (which they did, but a guard was stationed outside). She was arrested and interrogated with Jannie and most of the others. See Jannie's entry for more details: their paths were fairly parallel while they were in custody.
    She, Eberhard, and Kathinka all survived. They had another daughter. Lientje changed her own name to Lin Yaldati and performed "Yiddish songs of celebration, defiance, and remembrance" in the decades afterward. (Singing had been very important to her and other Dutch Jews in Bergen-Belsen.) Sometimes she, her husband, and daughters performed together. She died in the late 1980's.
    (The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank p. 37-84; and Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust, by Gay Block and Malka Drucker, p. 37-39 [includes a photo])

friendly adult
R
Jew in danger
  Brandes-Brilleslijper, Jannie  (24 Oct 1916 - 15 Aug 2003)
Janny, and her sister, Lientje, both verified to Otto that Anne and Margot had died in Bergen-Belsen and the approximate date. They were sent to Westerbork the same day as the people from the Secret Annexe. They first knew the Franks as faces in the crowd at Westerbork and again on the train to Auschwitz. She and her sister got to know Margot and Anne at Bergen-Belsen, where Jannie was doing what she could to help people, including her sister and the Frank girls. She and Otto kept contact after the war and they also had a common friend, Annie Romein.
    Jannie was born in Amsterdam, where her parents had a grocery store. She was a rebellious middle child (they had three children). She quit school at 14, taking assorted jobs over the years. She married a non-Jew, Bob Brandes, in 1939, despite the opposition of both of their parents. They had a son, Rob, in 1939 (and later, a daughter, Lilo, in 1941).
    Also that year, they started keeping people hidden in their home. They also helped refugees, with the Red Cross. After the invasion (10 May 1940), they both worked in the Resistance, doing a wide range of things. Jannie was able to live in the open during the war because she never registered as a Jew. Their Resistance work seems to have been focused on getting false identification papers and also removing the "J" from of existing ones.
    There were quite a few alarms and narrow escapes. They were finally arrested in the summer of 1944. After interrogations, beatings, and prison, she was sent to Westerbork, then to Auschwitz. At Auschwitz, she and Lientje were in the political prisoner barracks, then sent to Bergen-Belsen, in late autumn 1944, in a group willing to do nursing work. There, they recognized Anne and Margot and several other people from Westerbork and the Netherlands.
    After the camp's liberation, her physical recovery, and her reunion with her husband and children in the Netherlands, she went to the Red Cross lists to mark the names of those she knew had died. (As mentioned, she also personally told Otto of his daughters' deaths.)
    (See her section of The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank for much more, including photos. the Dutch language book, Kopgeld (Head money), by Ad van Liempt reportedly gives background information for their betrayal and arrest; a copy of her death notice was sent by a researcher)

$
  Broks, Ans
Charwoman at Gies & Co., starting in May 1944. She was sixty years old, hard of hearing, and married. p. 639, 640, 652 (9 May 1944, 19 May 1944)

HR   Mr. Brouwer and "D"
Coupon forgers and fat suppliers. p. 527 (14 March 1944)

friendly adult
@
P
Jew in danger
  Cauvern, Abraham "Ab" "Albert" (4 Apr 1909 - 15 June 1986) Wartime address: Oude Kerkweg 25, Laren, NL.
An old friend of Otto's: husband of his former secretary, Isa. Anne put a copy of their daughter, Ruth's, birth announcement in her diary. He was one of the people Otto asked to edit the diary manuscript known as Typescript I. In 1947, he took in Otto and the Gies, in his large apartment, where Otto apparently stayed until moving to Basel in mid-1952. (CE89 p. 63-4, 193; HLOF p. 213, 228, 238; AFR p. 249)
    He was born in Amsterdam. Prior to the anti-Jewish laws, he did bookkeeping and payroll at a Hilversum radio station. (Louis Cohen had also worked there, in the music department.) Ab was the only member of his family to survive the war. It is likely he was in hiding during part of the war. His mother (Roosje), father (Emanuël), and brother Joseph died in the camps. (His other brother, Leonard, died before the occupation.) (An Anne Frank researcher sent this information. The italicized links are to the Joodsmonument pages which back this up.)
    Regarding his first name, a researcher explained how it is that many references mistakenly call him "Albert" when his real name was Abraham: "Cauvern called himself Ab. Anyone thought it was short for Albert, as usual in Holland. The Critical Edition took it over … due to the fact that the NIOD at that time did not have any information on Abraham Cauvern … Using his real name Abraham would be dangerous in wartime, because Abraham is a Jewish name. He then could be easily recognized [as Jewish]."

friendly adult
@
P
Jew in danger
  Cauvern-Monas, Isidora "Isa" (19 Jan 1914 - 27 Jun 1946)
Wife of Ab and friend of Otto's, she was a secretary in Otto's company from 1935 until 1940. She had a daughter, Ruth, on 27 Sept 1941. She worked on retyping her husband's editing of the diary manuscript known as Typescript I. During this period she reportedly also died, by suicide, in June 1946. (CE89 p. 63-4, 193; HLOF p. 47, 213; the date she left the company came from an Anne Frank researcher.)

little kid
@
Jew in danger
  Cohen, Alfred Siegfried  (born: 26 Jan 1937)
Anne probably met this little kid because he was living for a time in 1942 with Miep, and also his grandmother was friends with Anne's father. Little Alfred survived the war in hiding, reportedly in Eemnes, at any rate in the Utrecht area. He had an older sister, Alida. (see Mrs Cohen references)

little kid
@
Jew in danger
  Cohen, Alida Rinie (9 Nov 1935 - before 1945)
Anne probably met this this little girl who was the granddaughter of Miep and Jan's landlady, Mrs Stoppelman, who was a friend of Anne's father. For the first months of 1942, Alida and her brother and their parents lived with their grandmother and the Gies. This was due to a German relocation order.
    After Alida's parents were deported to the camps in 1942, Jan and Miep found a secret organization of Amsterdam students who were hiding children. The students found hiding places for her and her brother. Alida became ill while in hiding in Bilthoven. A doctor visited but did not return, possibly because he learned that she was Jewish. The family hiding her did not dare try for another doctor and Alida died of diptheria. She was buried anonymously in a cemetery in Utrecht. (see Mrs Cohen references)

Jew in danger   Cohen, Louis Samuel (6 Nov 1902 - 30 Sept 1942) Addresses Details
It seems possible that Louis met the Franks, because Otto was friends with his mother-in-law, who was also Miep and Jan's landlady. He also lived with Mrs Stoppelman and the Gieses for a few months, starting in January 1942, with his wife and two kids (on German relocation order).
    He was born in Amsterdam, on 6 Nov 1902. He was a violinist and director of a radio station orchestra in Hilversum until he lost his job because he was Jewish. (Ab Cauvern had also worked there.) Louis and his wife were arrested and deported in 1942. They both died in Auschwitz on the same day: 30 Sept 1942. Their son survived the war, their daughter did not. (see Mrs Cohen references)

Jew in danger   Cohen, Saartje Froukje (nee Stoppelman) (21 January 1914 - 30 Sept 1942)
It seems possible that Anne met this woman. She was the Stoppelmans' daughter. During the start of 1942, she and her husband and kids were even living at her mother's, who was friends with Anne's father (and was Miep and Jan's landlady).
    She was married to Louis Cohen. They had two children, Alida, and Alfred. They all tried to escape on the day of the German invasion (10 May 1940), going to IJmuiden to find boat passage to England, but they were unsuccessful and returned home to Hilversum. (Meanwhile, her father also went to IJmuiden to say farewell to them, but he ended up on a ship to England himself!) In January 1942, on German orders, she and her family came to Amsterdam and moved into her mother's place. It was very crowded there (eight people, including her kids, aged five and three).
    They found a place to hide in Hilversum, but were arrested on their way there, at the railway station. Somehow someone got their kids and returned them to their grandmother's home. Miep and Jan found an organization of Amsterdam students who were finding hiding places for such children.
    Froukje, her husband, and daughter did not survive the war. Froukje died in Auschwitz on 30 September 1942. The son survived the war, as did Froukje's mother and father and her brother, Max.
    (AFR p. 62-3, 83-4, 105-7, 233 — in that book, this family is called Coenen, and her mother is called Mrs. Samson; Dutch Jewry Search; an Anne Frank researcher also sent the full, real names and some more of the above information. Miep's autobiography said her daughter was three years younger than Anne, but it was apparently actually a six year age difference.)

@
Jew in danger
  de Jong-van Naarden, Lenie
Anne met her in Westerbork and Auschwitz. She was part of Bloeme's group, older than Bloeme and the Frank girls. Also, her husband and Otto Frank stuck together, in both Westerbork and Auschwitz.
    Lenie and her husband were married in 1942 and went into hiding in the Hague for most of 1943, living with her husband's nephew. They were betrayed but escaped to a friend in Amsterdam, who kept them in hiding for several months. Assorted people helped them hide in various farms in Friesland but finally in August 1944, they and their protectors were raided and arrested. Her path after that was similar to Bloeme's. Apparently the two, plus about ten other people, walked all the way from Germany back to the Netherlands, which took weeks. German farmers were scared by a Russian document they carried, and they were also helped by Russians and Americans along the way.
    Otto and her husband were in the Auschwitz "hospital" when the liberation came. (His hands had become frozen.) They stayed together on their way back to the Netherlands. Her husband's hands always gave him trouble after the war, despite treatment. (See her interview in LSMAF: she was in the same cattle car to Auschwitz with the Frank family and describes the trip in harrowing detail.)

@
Jew in danger
  de Winter, Rootje
Anne met this woman, her husband, and daughter in Westerbork and they were in the same cattle car to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and then in the same Block there (Block 29). Her story and her clear memories of Anne are worthwhile reads (see the "Journey into the Night" chapter of Footsteps of Anne Frank — she is called Mrs. de Wiek there). She was in the sick barracks with Anne's mother, Edith, and told Otto of his wife's death. Rootje's husband was apparently immediately sent to the gas chambers upon arrival at Auschwitz. She and her daughter (Judy) survived. (see also HLOF p. 166)

$
  Delphi   Address in 1939: 1 Daniel Willinkplein
A Jewish tearoom that Anne, family, and friends used to visit. Here and Oasis were the only nearby eateries that Jews were permitted to go to in 1942 when Anne was still free (Anne Frank: the Biography, p. 148). (CE89 p. 185; see map).

$
  de Kok, Jacobus Johannes (b: 14 Apr 1901) Address in 1939: Slaakstraat 15
An assistant to the head warehouseman, van Maaren, for a few months in 1943. Anne could never have met him, though he was on the premises. Prior to this he had been a shop keeper/grocer. (info sent by researcher)

°
P
  Diary of Anne Frank, The (play: 1955-7; movie: 1959)
This Broadway play, written and produced with Otto's full cooperation, brought Americans' attention to the published diary even more than it had been before (it was a best seller in 1952). The play emphasized Anne's fun-loving good will and her hopes, presenting a universal message for all people. To this day, most Anne Frank readers are Americans. The play won the 1955 Pulitzer Prize (for Drama) and the 1956 Tony for Best Play. The play was also produced as a movie, in 1959, which won three Oscars. (HLOF p. 247, 269, 304 [see whole sections of the book for more info]; the play's Internet Broadway Database entry)

°
Jew in danger
  Drehr, Mr.
An old, tiresome man whom Otto Frank had been very patient with, visiting him and taking his phone calls. It's unclear if Anne ever met him. (CE89 p. 244: 25 Sept '42)

friendly kid
Jew in danger
  Egyedi, Käathe "Kitty" Wartime address: Noorder Amstellaan 167
Anne and Kitty were friends as kids. They both lived on the same street and went to the Montessori school. (Kitty is the fourth from the right in the group picture of Anne's birthday party: see the photo album at the USHMM AF exibit.) They grew apart in about 1939 and then Kitty's family moved out of the immediate neighborhood, and they hardly saw each other after that. But Anne and Kitty did have a sympatico conversation briefly before Anne had to go into hiding.
    When the anti-Jewish laws made them both change schools in autumn 1941, Kitty instead went to private lessons in a small group of other Jewish kids. Kitty and Anne nearly met again at Westerbork in 1944, where Kitty was a courier who also worked on sewing machines. Instead, they only learned about each other's presence on the camp: Kitty and her parents and brother were put on a train to Theresienstadt on September 4th. The four survived, probably largely due to how late they got there. She eventually became a dentist in Amsterdam, like her father. She got married, and had two children (presumably grown up by now).
    Otto Frank kept in touch with her and they both assumed that she was Anne's diaries' "Kitty." Kitty chose to retain her privacy by remaining somewhat anonymous. However, Müller's biography of Anne asserts that the "Kitty" of the diary was a character from Cissy van Marxveldt's story, Joop ter Heul, arguing that Anne perhaps chose Kitty Francken to write to because of their similar last names. Further, Anne refers to Kitty in quotes (front endpaper of her fourth diary), which suggests that Anne's Kitty was not a real person. Anne also wrote a short story about a fictional girl named Kitty. Maybe Anne just liked the name. (AF:B p. 144-5, 236, 243, 289-290; Anne Frank researcher)

friendly kid
cousin
  Elias, Bernhard "Buddy" (2 Jun 1925 - 16 March 2015) Address in 1939: Basel, Switzerland
Anne's cousin, a few years older than her. Like her, he was born in Frankfurt. While in hiding, she wrote about fantasies she had about going on outings with him. He survived the war and had a ice-skating career. He is currently (2007) the chairman of the Anne Frank Foundation. (CE89 p. 269-271, 283: 7 Oct '42, 18 Oct '42; AF:B p. 270, family tree; Anne Frank House CD-ROM; 2005 photo)

uncle
$
  Elias, Erich (6 Nov 1890 - 2 Oct 1984) Address in 1939: Basel, Switzerland
Anne's uncle in Switzerland, Otto Frank's sister's husband, who financially helped Anne's father.
    Born in Zweibrücken, Germany. Was full partner in the the Michael Frank Bank from 1921, until 1929. During that time, he and Otto and Herbert Frank had also made a short business venture in the Netherlands. In 1929, he moved to Basel, Switzerland to run an agency for selling pectin, a gelling agent. In 1933, he helped Otto get a job establishing an Amsterdam office for the company he worked for: Opekta. When it turned out that this was impossible, he loaned Otto money to start his own business selling pectin. He had two children, Stephan and Buddy. He died in Basel, 1984. (CE89 p. 1-2, 5, 14; AF:B family tree)

aunt   Elias, Helene "Leni" Frank (8 Sept 1893 - 2 Oct 1986) Address in 1939: Basel, Switzerland
Anne's aunt in Switzerland, Otto Frank's sister.
    She and her family moved from Frankfurt to Basel, Switzerland in 1933. She survived the war and helped support the family by starting and running an antiques business. (CE89 p. 3, 55; HLOF p. 41, 179; AF:B family tree)

@
Jew in danger
  Evers, Bloeme (5 July 1926 - 18 July 2016)
Met Anne and Margot in the Jewish Lyceum, Westerbork, and Auschwitz.
    Born in Amsterdam, the daughter of a working class couple (a diamond cutter and seamstress). They lived in a Jewish neighborhood but had renounced religion. She met Anne and Margot in the fall of 1941, when everyone had to go to the Jewish Lyceum. She was in Margot's grade level, but in a different class. When she got a summons from the Nazis at the end of 1942, Bloeme's father was able, diligently moving up the chain of command, to successfully argue for a temporary exemption for his daughter! She continued going to school as her class diminished over the months. On the day of her finals for her last year of High School (spring 1943), she was suddenly the only student left taking exams (in the morning there had been three) and she was arrested that night. She very resourcefully escaped, complete with hiding place arranged for her (of course it was quite complicated). Then she worked and lived in a nursing home, and helped nurses. But she eventually had to leave. (This was now one year of hiding.) She got false papers, moved to Rotterdam and found work as a maid until they went on vacation in August 1944: she had to live elsewhere for two weeks. While in hiding, she was arrested.
    At the prisoners' barracks in Westerbork, she met the Franks again. Like them, she was sent to Auschwitz, but their paths were separate after that. She was part of a small group of women who stuck together and tried to keep each other's dignity and spirits up (encouragement, mothering as a second family, kept track of dates). In October they were sent to a work camp. Anne had a rash and so was not eligible to go, so Margot and Edith stayed behind with her. Bloeme had a dream in November that the liberation would on the first of May. They were liberated on May eighth.
    She married Hans Emden. They raised a "relatively large family." She studied psychology part time and attained her doctorate in the late 1980's. She and Hans became active in the Jewish community in Amsterdam. She still has special friendships with those women she banded with for nine months in the camps. (her interview in The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank, news item)

grandmother   Frank, Alice Betty Stern (20 Dec 1865 - 20 Mar 1953) Address in 1939: Basel, Switzerland
Anne's paternal grandmother in Switzerland.
    Born in Frankfurt. She had four children: Robert, Otto, Herbert, and Helene. Became owner of her husband's bank when he died in 1909. After the bank closed in 1933, Anne's father (Otto) went to the Netherlands and Anne, Margot, and Edith lived with her in Frankfurt. They then moved in with the other grandmother (Holländer), in Aachen, still in 1933. A few months later, this grandmother (Frank) moved to Basel to live with her daughter, Helene's, family. She died in Basel in 1953. (CE89 p. 1, 4, 5; AF:B family tree)

#
@
Jew in danger
  Frank, Anneliese "Anne" Marie (12 Jun 1929 - early 1945)
Anne herself. This site has an overview, but you can read all about Anne in the reference books and other resources (plus this very site). Best of all, you can read about her dreams, thoughts, and feelings (during ages 13-15) in her diary, preferably the Critical Edition, which is the least edited of the diary editions.
    Anne was born in Frankfurt, Germany. She had an outgoing, amusing character and developed her thoughtful idealistic side within her diary, which she started on her thirteenth birthday. When she was a little kid, her family had fled to the Netherlands because the Nazis had come to power in Germany. Two years after the Nazis took over the Netherlands, her family went into hiding, which was shortly after she started her diary. But the family was caught two years later. Anne died at age 15, of typhus, in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, between the end of February and the end of March, 1945, just before its liberation. (CE89 p. 3, 54-5)

#
@
mother
Jew in danger
  Frank, Edith Holländer (16 Jan 1900 - 6 Jan 1945)
Anne's mother. In her diary, Anne tells of a lot of disagreements and discord with her, but also once called her a champion of youth! They apparently also pulled together within the camps.
    Born in Aachen, Germany, the youngest of four children in a wealthy family. Edith was a quiet person. She and Otto were married in the spring of 1925. She was 11 years younger than him. She died of malnutrition and the flu on 6 Jan 1945, in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. (CE89 p. 3, 52; TA p. 202)

uncle
Jew in danger
  Frank, Herbert (13 Oct 1891 - 20 Mar 1987) Wartime Locations: France, Switzerland
Anne's uncle in France, Otto's younger brother.
    Herbert was born in Frankfurt. He worked in the Michael Frank Bank on and off, mainly 1923 - 1932. He, Erich Elias, and Otto, made a short banking business venture in the Netherlands in the 1920's. He moved to France and survived the war by escaping to Switzerland. He died in Basel in 1987. (CE89 p. 2-4; AF:B family tree)

°
distant cousin
$
  Frank, Jean-Michel (28 Feb 1895 - 3 Aug 1941)
A distant cousin of Anne's (her father's cousin) who helped her father financially in 1932 (laws were already coming down hard on Jewish businesses). Jean was born in Paris and still lived in Paris at that time. He was an interior decorator and furniture designer, with international clients. His styles were unique and quite successful. A famous client was Rockefeller Center in New York city (AF:B puts Jean there in the early 1930's, implying he did all of the interior decorating, but it is a complex of several buildings: the completion dates spanned from 1932-1939). He died in New York in 1941. Perhaps he moved there, perhaps before the Nazis took Paris, so I did not add a yellow star symbol). He fled Paris in 1940, first to Buenos Aires, then to New York where he gave lectures in an art college. Despite continued success, he committed suicide, jumping out his window like his father had. (AF:B p. 31, family tree; HLOF p. 68, 334; Rockefeller Center brochure for building dates — it does not mention him.)

#
@
sister
Jew in danger
  Frank, Margot Betti (16 Feb 1926 - early 1945)
Anne's (older) sister.
    Born in Frankfurt, her middle name was in the memory of Betti Holländer. Margot was a quiet girl and an outstanding student. Her hopes for her future were to become a nurse in Palestine. She and Anne stayed close together in the camps. They both died of typhus, Margot dying a few days before Anne, sometime between late February and late March 1945, in Bergen-Belsen. (CE89 p. 3, 54-5; AFM p. 52-5; AFB p. 131, 193; HLOF p. 50; MOAF p. 133)

°
grandfather
  Frank, Michael (9 Oct 1851 - 17 Sept 1909)
Anne's paternal grandfather, who died before she was born. Born in Landau, Germany, in 1851. He had owned and directed a bank (The Michael Frank Bank) in Frankfurt. He died in Frankfurt in 1909. (CE89 p. 1; AF:B family tree)

#
@
friendly adult
father
Jew in danger
P
  Frank, Otto "Pim" Heinrich (12 May 1889 - 19 Aug 1980) Wartime Address: Merwedeplein 37-II (before hiding in July 1942 at Prinsengracht 263)
Anne's beloved father and the person who bought her first diary. After her death, he fulfilled her plans to publish a version of her entire diary and also promoted her ideals until his death.
    Born in Frankfurt, Germany, he served in the German army in WWI, earning the Iron Cross and the rank of Lieutenant. When the family bank (The Michael Frank Bank) closed in March 1933, he moved to the Netherlands and established a company selling pectin, a gelling agent. Erich Elias, his brother in law, who he had been in business with before, loaned him money to do this, as did a cousin, Armand. In 1934, Otto brought his wife and kids (Margot and Anne) along. At some point after the German occupation of the Netherlands, he tried to emigrate out of the Netherlands with his family, but it was too late, so he devised a plan to go into hiding on the premises of his business.
    He was the only person hidden in the secret annexe to survive the war (had been deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp). The SS took him and others out of the crude camp hospital to be killed, but something called the SS away. The following day, they were all liberated by Russian troops. The troops slowly moved the weak skeletal inmates to Katowice, then Czernowitz, and then to Odessa on the Black Sea. From there, they were taken by ship through the Dardanelles to the Agean Sea (the sea by Greece and Turkey), through the Mediteranean Sea to Marseilles, France. All of that travel took took four months due to the damages and tie-ups in the immediate aftermath of the war. They'd had enough to eat along the way and regained strength, but were still strikingly thin. Otto was put on a ship to Holland.
    He returned to work, and also read Anne's diaries, after it was clear she had died. He was very moved by them and wanted to realize her dream of publishing the slightly edited version she had been preparing. This took some effort but he did succeed. The first printing was in the summer 1947.
    On 10 Nov 1953, he married Elfriede Geiringer-Markovits. They lived in Birsfelden, Switzerland. He founded the Anne Frank Fonds, cooperated with playwrights, and responded to letters from Anne's readers. Died 19 Aug 1980, leaving Anne's diary to the Netherlands. (CE89 p. 1-9, 55-56, 71; AFB p. 9, 27, 276-7; TA p. 200, 205; The Hidden Life of Otto Frank; Anne Frank: the Biography)

uncle   Frank, Robert (9 Oct 1886 - 23 May 1953) Wartime Location: England (London)
Anne's uncle, Otto's older brother. Robert was an art and antiques dealer who moved to England as early as 1933. He survived the war, died in 1953. (CE89 p. 5; AF:B p. 273 family tree)

°
Jew in danger
  Frijda, Herman (22 July 1887 - 3 Oct 1944) Address in 1939: Corellistraat 3 bov.
Father of Margot's best friend, an economics professor. He was deported and killed in Auschwitz. It is likely he was on the same transport to the camp as the Franks: his name appeared with theirs on the transport list and the birthdate differs only in the month (June instead of July), not the day or year, and the occupation is given as Hochschullehrer (i.e. a professor). (AF:B p. 278-9; Dutch Jewry Search; AF:BTD p. 93; his Joodsmonument page)

friendly kid
@
Jew in danger
  Frijda, Jetta "Jetteke" Sandra (b: 1 Dec 1925)
Margot's best friend at the Jewish Lyceum. Jetteke got a call up a few weeks after Margot did. She went into hiding and survived the war (her mother had escaped to Switzerland in 1940). She became a nurse "specializing in social work and home care" who, as recently as the late 1990's, was still teaching and caring for the elderly in Amsterdam. (Her brother and father were killed by the Nazis.) (AF:B p. 131, 278-9; Anne Frank researcher; the AFH also has an interview with Jetteke)

friendly kid
friendly adult
@
Jew in danger
  Gallasch family Address in 1939: Roerstraat 99 (until 1939) then Maasstraat 100-I (until deportation)
The Gallasch family was friendly with the Frank family. The daughter, Ursul, was friends with Anne's sister, Margot, who was the same age. (The son, Heinz "Hans," was nearly three years younger than Anne.)
    Like the Franks, they were Jewish refugees from Germany (they emigrated in 1935). In 1936, the head of the family, Max, founded Oasis, an ice cream shop and tearoom. In 1943, the Gallasch family was taken away to Westerbork. In the second half of 1944, the family of four escaped Westerbork and survived the remainder of the war in hiding, separated in four gentile families' homes. (The children's Aunt, Uncle, and Grandmother, however, were deported and never returned.) According to his son, emailing as an old man, his father, Max, had contracted tuberculosis while in Westerbork but was not diagnosed until the end of the war when a doctor could finally examine him. Max later died of a heart attack. (He died in his home on 25 Aug 1951, as documented in obituary notices and Amsterdam records).
    (Descendants of Max and an Anne Frank researcher sent the following data: Max-Paul Josef Gallasch, born 1 March 1900; his wife, Elsbeth Dina Gallasch-Kahlenberg, born 16 Oct 1902. From the Joodsmonument, it seems likely Emilie Kahlenberg-Wolff was the children's other grandmother, who did not survive the war.)

friendly kid
@
Jew in danger
  Gallasch, Ursula "Ursul" "Ulla" Emilie (b: 12 Dec 1926)
Anne surely knew Ursul. She was friends with Margot, and Ursul's father ran Oasis, one of Anne's favorite ice cream places. Ursul survived the war and her nickname became Ulla. (Full name and birth date sent by an Anne Frank researcher and descendants of Ulla; See also Gallasch family)

cousin once removed
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Jew in danger
  Geiershöfer, Armand "Hermann"  (11 May 1876 - 17 Aug 1942) Wartime Location: Luxembourg
A relative who gave financial support to Anne's father while the business was getting started in 1933-4.
    A cousin-in-law of Otto Frank's, Armand was born in Nuremberg in 1876 but spent most of his life outside of Germany (first Switzerland, then England). He lived in Luxembourg by 1906 and he became a manager at his father-in-law's glove factory there. His original name was Hermann but when he became a Luxembourg citizen, he changed his first name to the French equivalent: Armand.
    He died of a heart attack in 1942. Soon after that, his wife, Irma, was deported to Theresienstadt and then to Auschwitz, where she died sometime in 1943. Their two children survived the war. (CE89 p. 8; most of the information was sent by helpful descendants/relatives)

° Jew in danger   Geiringer, Eva (b: 11 May 1929)
A neighborhood girl who was the same age as Anne, though not in Anne's circle of friends, possibly because she was very shy. Like Anne, she and her family went into hiding in 1942 and they were also discovered and deported to Auschwitz. Like Anne's father, she survived to tell the story. She introduced him to her mother, who also survived (the two parents married in 1953). Eva wrote a well-reviewed book, Eva's Story about her experiences, published in 1997. She married Zvi Schloss in 1952 and they moved to London and had three daughters. Eva worked as a freelance photographer and then dealt in antiques in her own business. She recently donated, to a museum in Amsterdam, the paintings her father and brother made while they were in hiding. (CE89 p. 55; AF:B p. 276-7; HLOF p. 240-1, 275, 298; 8 Jan 2006 Dutch news storydead link 10-24-09)

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  Genot, Petrus Josephus (b: 18 Apr 1901)
Worked in the warehouse, had helped clear out the annexe in 1942, before the annexers moved in. Told Kleiman's brother what Mrs Hartog had said. (CE89 p. 32)

$   Gies & Co.   Address in 1941: 263 Prinsengracht
This was the company Anne's Father, Otto, headed. Things were rather complex during the war, especially after the occupation by the Nazis. He had to legally surrender the operations and resign, so he signed things off to a very trusted person, Jan Gies the husband of an employee (Miep), and the new name of the company (Gies & Co.) reflected that change.
    Some history: Pomosin-Werke was a manufacturer and distributor of pectin, a gelling agent for jams and jellies. In the summer of 1929, Otto's brother-in-law, Erich, opened a Swiss branch of a part of this company, Opekta-Werke, in Basle, Switzerland. It was successful, despite the arrival of the Great Depression. In 1933, Erich told Otto that Opekta-Werke was planning to expand into Amsterdam.
    But when Otto came to Amsterdam, he found out there had been a presence of Pomosin-Werke there since 1928. Otto tried different things and hit on the plan of independently selling small packets of Opekta pectin to housewives, with a loan from Erich. Opekta had agreed to this scheme in return for a 2.5% of his profits. In the early years, Otto worked at 120 Nieuwe Zijds Voorburgwal. Competition became increasingly tight and Otto got more assistance from an uncle. In 1934, Otto had at least two employees (Kugler and Miep), so he moved the business to a larger office: 400 Singel. In 1938, Otto finally found a way to make his business more profitable. He expanded by joining with Mr. Kleiman and Hermann van Pels in a business called Pectacon, which was about mixing herbs for sausages.
    After the German invasion, Otto saw it would be wise to restructure the companies officially so they would appear to be in non-Jewish hands. They coincidentally needed to move again. On 1 December 1940, they moved to 263 Prinsengracht. There were years of legal wrangling regarding the aryanization laws, many names the two companies came to have, but Anne typically called the company, "Gies & Co." so I will leave it at that.
    By the time they went into hiding in the house behind the business, there were more employees than the ones already mentioned above. Bep Voskuijl helped in the administrative tasks, and her father was in charge in the warehouse. There were typically a pair of warehousemen as well. And a pharmacist, Arthur Lewinsohn, came in once or twice per week to perform some tests. Business carried on despite the legal gyrations they had to oblige the Nazis with, largely because they did what they could to avoid the sharp edges of the regulations. (CE89 p. 3-16)

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  Gies, Hermine "Miep" (nee Santrouschitz) (15 Feb 1909 - 11 Jan 2010) Wartime Address: Hunzestraat 25
She saved Anne's diary and did a great deal of the daily help for the people hiding in the annexe. She also ran the companies until Kleiman returned (August - Sept 1944) and gave Otto a home after he returned from Auschwitz.
    She was born in 1909 in Vienna, Austria. She partly grew up in Holland with a foster family. Starting in 1933, she was an all around help at Otto Frank's office and soon became a friend of the Frank family. Married Jan Gies on 16 July 1941. During the war, she and her husband lived quite near the Franks' home (see map). While they were in hiding, Miep helped them almost daily. After the raid, she retrieved Anne's scattered diaries, diary pages, family photo albums, schoolbooks, and Anne's hair-combing shawl.
    After the war, she and Jan took Otto in, first at 25 Hunzestraat, then at Jan's sisters' apartment, then at Ab Cauvern's. She and Jan had a son, Paul, after the war (13 July 1950) and he has three children. She wrote a book about her life, emphasizing the war period, She won several humanitarian awards. (CE89 p. 8, 10; AFB p. 281-2; AFR p. 27, 31, 62-3, 199, 248; HLOF p. 195-6; AFBD p. 89; see also Web site devoted to Miep's life story, this online interview with Miep [http://miepgies.nl, http://teacher.scholastic.com/frank/tscripts/miep.htm])

Here is a short film clip with Miep, before the war.


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  Gies, Jan A. (18 Aug 1905 - 26 Jan 1993) Wartime Address: Hunzestraat 25
Friend and helper of the Franks and those in hiding, he was also Miep's husband.
    He and Miep first met while working in another company. He met the Franks via Miep. He worked as a municipal official (social worker). When the anti-Jewish laws came into effect, so that Otto's businesses could continue, Jan was named as supervisory director, and then the company became N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies & Co. ("Gies & Co." for short). It was all a cover: he was not involved in the business.
    During a good part of the war, Jan was a resistance worker in his spare time. He was one of the annexers' helpers, too, visiting them almost daily and getting them ration coupons. He found a hiding place for Mrs. Stoppelman's son, Max, and daughter-in-law. Both he and Miep hid a student in their rooms and they found a way to get Mrs. Stoppelman's grandchildren into hiding elsewhere. Part of his job after the war was processing returning camp prisoners at the Centraal Station (see map). (CE89 p. 10; AF:BTD p. 109; AFB p. 258, 281; HLOF p. 145; AFR 171-3, but there is a lot more about him in this book, including some of his resistance activities [note: he is called "Henk" in this book])

friendly kid   Goldberg, Eva M. (8 Feb 1929 - 28 July 1997)
A kid Anne's age who sometimes visited the Amsterdam neighborhood, from Germany, at least when she was little. Anne and other kids in the neighborhood spoke German and little kids make friends easily. She survived the war, reportedly moved to the US. (AFBD p. 24; Anne Frank researcher, via the NIOD; SSDI)

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Jew in danger
  Goldsmith/Goldschmidt, Mr.
The Franks had rented him a room in their apartment on the Merwedeplein. He was also Jewish but was not let in on the secret of the hiding place. Anne briefly describes him at the end of her essay, "Roomers or Subtenants": a friend of a friend of her parents, he was a divorced man with a new fiancé, "a big tall man of thirty-five with glasses, most unprepossessing to look at." He may have stole their stuff after they left. He was deported to the camps, died in Bergen Belsen. (CE89 p. 232, 238, 292: 22 Aug '42, 21 Sept '42, 5 Nov '42; AFR p. 95, 239; AF:B p. 155; Anne Frank researcher)

friendly adult
R
Jew in danger
  Goldstein-van Cleef, Ronnie
She met the Franks in Westerbork and was often nearby in the same roll calls as Anne in Auschwitz, and then in the scabies block. In the scabies block, she sang to keep people's spirits up. Mrs Frank and another mother brought food for Ronnie, as well as their daughters.
    When the Nazis invaded Holland, she lived with her parents in the Hague. They all got involved with the resistance. They kept a printing press under their house. They helped falsify IDs and went into hiding. She got more involved in the Resistance after her father was arrested on 3 March 1943. She mostly took people to new places, with identification papers, and keeping them supplied with ration cards, etc. She traveled widely in the Netherlands because she didn't look Jewish (light hair). She was arrested in June 1944 on a train: a former classmate had tipped the Nazis about her and several others. She was in Westerbork by July. In a work camp, she was able to get packing paper to write poetry about her feelings and situation. She still has them. She and her mother survived, her father did not. She probably married after the war and it's unclear which last name was her maiden name. (See her interview in The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank.)

little kid
Jew in danger
  Goslar, Rachel Gabrielle "Gabi" Ida (b: 1940)
Anne's friend's toddler sister, who she saw regularly. Gabi (and Hanneli) was sent to Bergen-Belsen and had very bad ear infections there. She (and Hanneli) survived. After the war, she went with Hanneli to Switzerland, something Anne's father arranged at least part of (they had an uncle in Geneva). (MOAF p. 128-9, plus of course the rest of the book; AFB p. 112; LSMAF p. 33)

friend
Jew in danger
  Goslar, Hannah "Hanneli" Elizabeth "Lies" (born: 12 Nov 1928)
Anne's friend (the one with a cute toddler sister, Gabi). Anne had a dire dream about her while in hiding and later furtively met her in Bergen-Belsen.
    For a time, Hanneli lived on the Merwedeplein, like Anne. Their parents were very good friends as well. They were all German Jewish immigrants. After the Franks went into hiding, Hanneli's mother died during childbirth (the baby died, too), in the fall of 1942. The Goslar family was taken away on 20 June 1943. They were in Westerbork until a train took them away on 14 February 1944. They were taken to Bergen-Belsen as Jews on a preferred list. While there, she and Anne met a few times under dire circumstances but she was nonetheless able to get Anne some food (Hanneli was in a better part of the camp). Hanneli barely survived the concentration camp. Their father and grandparents did not. Otto Frank visited her in the hospital and arranged for Gabi and her to go to Switzerland to recuperate. She moved to Israel in 1947, became a nurse, and married Dr. Walter Pinchas Pick. She and Otto maintained contact. She is still alive and regularly travels to speak in schools.
    (MOAF p. viii, 2, 44, 66-7, 105-6, 109, 125-6, 128-130; CE89 p. 205, 229, 291, 422-3: 5 July '42, 14 Aug '42, 2 Nov '42; 27 Nov '43; AF:B p. 53; LSMAF p. 34 (see also the rest of her interview); Online Interview with Miep Gies; an Anne Frank researcher sent her birth date and notes that Hanneli's records spelled her name "Hanna Elisa Goslar.")

Hannah in 2009


friendly adult
Jew in danger
  Goslar, Hans (4 Nov 1889 - 25 Feb 1945) 1934 Address: Merwedeplein 31-1; 1937 address: Zuider Amstellaan 16-2 (until deported)
He, his wife, and daughter were good friends with the Franks. Their daughter, Hanneli, was friends with Anne. If it were not for their toddler, Gabi, and their expecting another baby, they would have been invited to share the hiding place. (MOAF p. 105-6; HLOF p. 83 or 100; Addresses and birth dates sent by an Anne Frank researcher.)

friendly adult
Jew in danger
  Goslar-Klee, Ruth Judith (23 Oct 1901 - 28 Oct 1942)
She, her husband, and daughter were good friends with the Franks. She died during childbirth in while Anne was in hiding. It seems Anne was only told that the baby died. (CE89 p. 291: 2 Nov 1942, her Joodsmonument info)

Nazi
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  Gringhuis, Gezinus (28 Sept 1898 - 5 Nov 1975) Address in 1939: Tuinbouwstraat 70 (in 1945: Marathonweg 22-hs)
One of those who raided the annexe. He worked for the SD and was an NSB member who had been a regular policeman before. See also his life chronology

Nazi
Â
  Grootendorst, Willem (4 May 1889 - 2 July 1973) Address in 1939: Corantijnstraat 22-II
One of those who raided the annexe. He worked for the SD and was an NSB member. He had been a policeman.

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  Hartog, Lammert (22 Feb 1895 - 6 Mar 1959) Address in 1939: JF Blankenstraat 39
van Maaren's assistant in the warehouse. He and his wife had two sons: Klaas was born on 28 Jan 1921 and Abraham was born on 27 July 1924. (CE89 p. 32; AFB p. 283; dates, address, and info about sons sent by researcher)

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  Hartog, Lena (nee van Bladeren) (20 Dec 1897 - 10 June 1963)
She apparently worked for Otto's businesses: cleaning the offices, one day per week, starting in 1943. She was also Lammert's wife. She was the house help of Anna Genot, who she told (in about late June 1944) about the rumor of Jews in the Gies & Co. building. Although Anne Frank: the Biography strongly suggests it was she who betrayed the hiding place, The Hidden Life of Otto Frank very convincingly refutes this theory. (CE89 p. 32, 639, 640 (9 May 1944); AFB p. 283-4; Frank House CD-ROM; see also the early 2003 investigation)

°
dead relation
  Holländer, Abraham (27 Oct 1860 - 19 Jan 1927)
Anne's maternal grandfather, who died before she was born. `Holländer' refers to Holland: his ancestors lived in Amsterdam and migrated to Germany in around 1800. He was born in Eschweiler, Germany, and had eight siblings (one was named Karl). He was a manufacturer. Died on 19 January 1927, at the age of 66, in Aachen. (CE89 p. 3; AFM p. 52-55; AF:B family tree)

distant cousin
Jew in danger
  Holländer, Irene (13 June 1900 - 9 March 1974) Wartime Locations: Germany and Peru
Anne's distant cousin (Edith Frank's favorite cousin, who was born the same year she was). Irene married Walter Kronheim and had two daughters but divorced in 1933. Irene escaped to Peru in early 1937, with her mother and daughters, all joining her brother there. (One daughter, Ulla, a 13 year old, stopped by to stay with the Franks in Amsterdam before her trip.) Irene soon married a doctor, Siegfried Holzer, who was also a refugee from Germany. In the 1960's, the family moved to the USA. (AFM p. 52-55; AF:B p. 48, 71-2, 284-5, family tree)

friendly adult
uncle
Jew in danger
  Holländer, Julius (11 Dec 1894 - 4 Oct 1967) Wartime Locations: Germany, USA (Leominster, MA)
Anne's uncle: her mother's brother.
    He was born in Eschweiler, Germany, was six years older than Edith. He fought in WWI and had a stiff elbow: a war injury. He and brother Walter ran the family business (dealers in industrial equipment and scrap metal). He applied for entry to the USA (had a cousin there, Ernst, who vouched support) and arrived in April 1939. Not speaking English very well, he could only find unskilled work at a box factory (in June 1940). Walter followed later that year. They became American citizens on the same day (13 Nov 1944). The troubles and losses of the years hit him harder than Walter, though. In 1963, they moved to New York (at the end of 1956, they finally got reparations pensions). In 1967, Julius fell into an elevator shaft and died. There is a 1964 photo of the brothers online (right click to view the full sized image). (AFM p. 52-55; AFB p. 23-4, 82, 88, 110, 285-8, family tree)

°
dead relation
  Holländer, Karl (? - 1915)
Abraham Holländer's brother, who died in 1915, serving in the German army. (AFM p. 52-55)

friendly adult
grandmother
Jew in danger
  Holländer, Rosa Stern (25 Dec 1866 - 29 Jan 1942)
Anne's maternal grandmother, who had a sweet disposition. Born on Christmas Day, 1866, in Langenschwalbach. She had four children (Julius, Walter, Betti, and Edith). Lived in Aachen until 1939, then lived with the Franks in Amsterdam until her death (cancer) in 1942. (CE89 p. 5, 16, 183, 190: 20 June '42, 28 Sept 1942 diary 1, p. 29, with photo; AFM p. 52-5; AFB p.136)

friendly adult
uncle
Jew in danger
  Holländer, Walter (6 Feb 1897 - 19 Sept 1968) Wartime Locations: Germany, Netherlands, USA (Leominster, MA)
Anne's uncle, Edith Frank's brother.
    He was born in Aachen (three years older than Edith). He and Julius ran the family business, but were arrested in the November 1938 raids, in Aachen. Walter was released but Julius was taken to Sachsenhausen. He was allowed to leave the country about three weeks later because he had gained admittance to Holland (via his relations, the Franks). However, he had to stay in a quarantine camp there, paying all expenses. He could only leave after about a year, leaving for the USA to join Julius. Walter's boss agreed to sign an affidavit for Anne's family, but it was too late to be any use. He and his brother became American citizens in 1944. Walter died on 19 Sept 1968, in New York. See Julius's entry for some more info. There is a photo of Walter and information at the Anne Frank Guide (USA). (AFM p. 52-55; AFB p. 81-4, 86, 110-1, 285-8)

  Joop ter Heul, by Cissy van Marxveldt
This popular book (or series of four volumes?) inspired Anne to write her diary to assorted imaginary friends. The book, told in diary form, is about a girl with a boy's name, Joop, who keeps a diary. Joop has many friends, including her best friend, Kitty. Anne wrote to different characters from this book: Jettje, Emmy, Pop, Marianne, Pien, Conny, and Kitty. She also wrote to "Jopie" as a pseudonym for her friend Jacqueline van Maarsen. When writing to "Kitty," Anne might have been writing to her friend Kitty, however that seems to be a misconception (see end of Kitty's entry). (AF:B p. 143, 180-1, 183, 186)

friendly adult   Kaletta, Martha Charlotta "Lotte" (approx. 1910   - 13 June 1985) Address in 1939: on the IJsselstraat
She was in the Franks' circle: she gave Anne "a roll of acid drops" for her birthday (this was before they went into hiding). She was also Fritz Pfeffer's common-law wife, a christian.
    Her first husband was a German Jew and they had a son there in Germany. When she and her husband divorced, he got custody of their son. She soon met Pfeffer, in Germany. Among worse things, the German laws also made it impossible for them to marry. They both emigrated to Holland in late 1938. She had to leave her son behind with his father. While Pfeffer was hiding in the annexe, they communicated via Miep. After Lotte learned that Fritz had died in a concentration camp, she married him posthumously. Her first husband and son also died, in Auschwitz. (CE89 p. 16, 186: 20 June 1942 p. 11; AF:B p. 188, 288; HLOF p. 337)

friendly kid
heartthrob
Jew in danger
  Kimel, "Sally" "Sol" (b: 7 Oct 1928)
"A short, fat, fair-haired friendly boy, with a great sense of humor." Friends for years, starting in Kindergarten, Anne was quite fond of him, even later while in hiding. She wrote: "A week ago, even yesterday, if you had asked me, 'Which of your friends do you consider would be the most suitable to marry? I would have answered: 'Sally, for he makes me feel good, peaceful and safe!'" He had blonde hair and blue eyes. He lived with his mother, possibly with his Aunt and cousins.
    Sally was born in Berlin. In the fall of 1942, his mother was taken in a roundup in Amsterdam (she later died in Auschwitz). He was taken in by distant relatives and then put into hiding, with several other Jews, on a farm. The farm was raided in early 1945. Sol was sent to Westerbork on the 8th of February, where he remained until it was liberated, on April 12th. He studied chemistry in Amsterdam and America, and then moved to Israel, where he remains. He has a wife and two children and was a professor working in cancer research (now retired). (CE89 p. 448, 451: 6 Jan 1944 p. 18, 22; AF:B p. 64, 289)

Sally in 2009


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  Kleiman, Johannes (19 Aug 1896 - 30 Jan 1959) Wartime Address: Generaal Vetterstraat 40
Close business associate and friend of Otto and the family. He was the Franks' most long-term friend in Amsterdam. He had known Otto since about 1924. He was one of the helpers of those hiding in the secret annexe. Sometimes his wife would visit and Anne would ask her longingly about their teenaged daughter's life in freedom. Their daughter was very fond of Anne and did not know of the secret but probably guessed as soon as November 1942. After the raid, Johannes was imprisoned and was to be sent to a labor camp in Germany, but he had a gastric hemorrhage and the Red Cross soon successfully intervened to get him (and several others) released. When well enough to work again, he took charge of Gies & Co. (CE89 p. 1-3, 8-16, 49; AF:BTD p. 109; HLOF p. 99, 336; FAF p. 79-81; an Anne Frank researcher sent his birth date and said his wife was born on 10 Feb 1897, Catharina Reuman, however HLOF states her name was Johanna.)

friendly kid
Jew in danger
  Klein, Hannelore "Hansi"
This girl convinced a neighbor lady, Schütz, to put on a comedic play, in the winter of '41-42 (they both directed). Anne played the lead.
    Hansi's older sister was called up on the very same day that Margot was. Their christian grandmother went to the Nazis with a convincing lie about her dead husband: that he had been an Aryan (i.e. not Jewish). This officially made her three granddaughters only half Jewish and their mother completely Aryan. Hansi went to the regular school again. She married Rudi Nussbaum in 1947 (he had survived by hiding with a farm family) and they moved to the United States in 1957. They had three children. Hansi (now called Laureen) became a literature professor and Rudi presumably worked in physics. They live in Oregon. (AF:B 134-5, 290-1)

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  Koco
This ice cream parlor, being on Rijnstraat (71-73 see map), was somewhat near the Franks' home. The owners were Jewish immigrants from Germany and Koco was a favorite gathering place for the local Jewish refugees. It was also the site of an historic confrontation with the occupying Nazis on 19 Feb 1941.
      Friction between Koco patrons and the local National Socialists (Nazis) had been building and blew up that day. The Nazis had been erroneously suspicious that the gatherings were plotting against them, so they had long and frequently been visiting Koco. In turn, this ongoing suspicious treatment was irritating the patrons. Surely the local events of February 1941 put the Nazi visits into a more threatening light than mere ongoing annoyance: on 9 and 11 February 1941, armed Nazis raided, and cordoned off, the old Jewish quarter (in central Amsterdam), and lied about what went on via the Nazi paper on the 12th. Koco patrons planned an unpleasant surprise (spraying ammonia) for the next Nazi visit to Koco. On the 19th, the patrons went with their plan but it turned out to be German police, not locals, arriving at Koco. The police reacted very disproportionately to the ammonia confrontation. They shot their guns and arrested the owners (Kohn and Cahn) and several patrons. The next day, the German police exaggerated to the press, claiming that heavily armed Jews had attacked them.
      Three days later, the German and local Nazis in power stormed the old Jewish quarter, violently and randomly arresting about 400 Jewish men. Two weeks later, they executed Ernst Cahn, who had been arrested at Koco on the 19th. (References for all of the above: Anne Frank: the Biography p. 120-3; AFR p. 67; HLOF p. 69-70; see also http://isd.usc.edu/~anthonya/holo.htm.)
      Hans Gallasch sent me some more information. He was about ten years old at the time and he remembers the owners of Koco because his family was friendly with them. He remembers the owners were named Kohn and Cohn, and the name, "Koco," stood for their last names. He also explains about the ammonia, "Ammonia is a gas which comes in large pressurized bottles and this is what they had for their whipped cream machine, same as my father. … one of the [Koco] partners opened a large bottle of [ammonia] gas on [the Germans], both families were deported and never returned."

I was a little alarmed to think ammonia gas is used for making whipped cream, so I looked it up on the web. Here's a page about chemical reactions, briefly covering ammonia's role in making laughing gas, which is used in making spray whipped cream. Amazing.


friendly adult
Jew in danger
  Kohnke, Helene Sara Leyens "Leni"  (5 Oct 1903 - 23 Sept 1943) Wartime address: Vossiusstraat 50
A long-time friend of Anne's mother. Like the Franks, she and her husband (Erich), and his relatives fled Germany with their children and established homes near Amsterdam. It may have been she whom Anne called "Aunt Helene."* She gave Anne a birthday gift at least once. Indications are Helene, Erich, and their baby daughter stayed with the Franks for about a month in mid-1941 while they looked for a place of their own. At the same time, Anne's grandmother was also living with them. However, Anne went on a very long vacation with her friend, Sanne, starting in late July of that same year, writing lots of letters home. It may be her absence made it possible for her parents to help these friends (that is, Anne was not around during this stay). Still, the picture suggests Aunt Helene was a regular part of Anne's life during wartime.
    Aunt Helene and her husband went into hiding but also secretly gave their baby to the Dutch resistance. This saved her life because her parents were sent to Westerbork in May 1943 and were killed in Auschwitz. The then-toddler (named Anne Bianca, but called Anneka) was protected and after the war moved to a Dutch orphantage. Anne's father found her there while looking for his own daughters. She was adopted by her mother's sister, who had emmigrated to America by then. A Dutch documentary, The Baby, was made about her story, in 2012.
    (Anne's CE89 diary entry 14 June 1942, AF:B: 125-6; Anne Frank researcher; news item; Yad Vashem)

* Anne had an actual aunt in Switzerland named Helene, but everyone, including Anne, called her Leni/Leny (there is a postcard in the Critical Edition showing this). Anne referred to Aunt Helene and Aunt Leny in the same sentence on 14 June 1942, getting different gifts from each. However, right after telling what aunt Leny gave her, she wrote "and a bracelet from Anneke with a kiss." Is it possible Anne sometimes referred to this Helene as "Leny" and this kiss was from her 1.5 year old daughter, told to give Anne a kiss? Unlikely, but possible..


friendly adult
  Kugler, Laura Maria Buntenbach- (10 May 1895 - 6 Dec 1952)
Anne got along very well with this woman during at least one meal before going into hiding, however she was not in on the secret and apparently was not mentioned in the diary. Maria was Mr. Kugler's wife. They had no children. (FAF p. 77; Anne Frank researcher)

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  Kugler, Victor Gustav (6 June 1900 - 16 Dec 1981)
1938 address: Leeuwenhoekstraat 117; moved in 1941 to Eemnesserweg 56 (both in Hilversum)

"Miep and Kugler carry the heaviest burden of us and all those in hiding," Anne wrote in her diary (26 May 1944). Born in Austria, he apparently got Dutch citizenship by 1938. He was apparently unsuccessful at business (and Otto Frank took over in 1933). He then became Otto's right hand man and he was named as managing director when the non-Jewish laws came into effect (so the business could continue). He was one of the helpers of those in hiding and ran the business during the long periods when Kleiman was ill. He got Anne film magazines and Anne would beg him for newspapers (forbidden to her). He would sometimes give her a peek at a newspaper.
    After the raid, he was taken to prison. He was digging trenches until 28 March, 1945, when they were near the border and the confusion of a British attack enabled him escape to a farm. He bicycled for two weeks to his wife, Maria. He hid at home until the Liberation (a few weeks later) and returned to work. After his wife's death in 1952, he remarried and moved to Canada in 1955. In 1973, he was awarded the Yad Vashem Medal of the Righteous, for helping the eight Jews in hiding. (CE89 p. 7, 10, 49-50; FAF p. 77-8, 81; AF:BTD p. 109; AFR p. 229-230; AF:B p. 291; Anne Frank researcher)

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  Kuiper, Maarten  (13 Nov 1898 - 30 Aug 1948) Wartime Addresses: Oude IJsselstraat 15-2, Jan van Eijckstraat 22-1
A Dutch policeman, one of the major betrayers of Jews in hiding during the war, he was one of those who raided the annexe. He was friends with, or acquainted with, Tonny Ahlers. He was executed on 30 Aug 1948, for betraying many, many Jews. (HLOF p. 125, 128, 220, 319, 367 [note #29]; note that he lived at the same address as Tonny Ahlers but not at the same time: Kuiper lived there very soon after Ahlers did)

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Jew in danger
  Ledermann, Barbara (b: 4 Sept 1925)
Margot's best friend until the schools were switched, in autumn 1941, due to the anti-Jewish laws. (After that, Barbara went to a private ballet school.) Barbara was also Sanne's older sister. Further, their parents were friends with the Franks.
    At some point before June 1943, Barbara was able to go "underground": her blond hair and blue eyes allowed her to pass as a non-Jew, complete with phony ID card (renaming her Barbara Waarts), and she became an important courier in the Resistance movement. In 1947, being unable to get Dutch citizenship and having none of her immediate family left alive, she emigrated to New York. In 1950, she married Martin Rodbell and had four daughters. Her husband won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1994 and they live in North Carolina. (AF:B p. 52, 131, 234, 292-3 [as usual, there is more information about her in this book])

friendly adult
Jew in danger
  Ledermann, Franz Anton (16 Oct 1889 - 19 Nov 1943) Address in 1939: Noorder Amstellaan 37-3 or 57-3 (until deported)
Anne called him "Uncle Franz," though they were not related. There were several connections between their families (see his wife and daughters). He was a German lawyer who emigrated with his family to Holland and learned Dutch law, passing the bar in about 1936. Meanwhile, he and Mr. Goslar worked together helping fellow immigrants deal with finances, real estate, and legal matters. He was a fine violinist and violist, and played in the neighborhood concerts with his wife and others.
    Along with his wife and one daughter, Sanne, he was deported on 20 June 1943, and gassed immediately after their arrival at Auschwitz (see Sanne for more details). (AFB p. 58, 125, 134, 292 [see this book for much more])

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Jew in danger
  Ledermann, Ilse Louise Citroën (8 Mar 1904 - 19 Nov 1943)
Anne called her "Aunt Ilse," though they were not related. There were several connections between their families. "Aunt Ilse" was the mother of Anne's friend, Sanne, and Margot's best friend, Barbara. Like many in the neighborhood, they had emigrated from Germany. She was Dutch by birth and played piano. Among others, she and her husband, Franz, played music, in neighborhood homes, every other Sunday. Anne sometimes went to these concerts, which were largely a way around restrictions against Jews going to movie houses, etc.
    Along with Sanne and her husband, she was deported on 20 June 1943, and gassed immediately after her arrival at Auschwitz (see Sanne for more details). (AFB p. 52, 57, 58, 125, 134, 292 [see this book for much more])

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Jew in danger
  Ledermann, Susanne "Sanne" (7 Oct 1928 - 19 Nov 1943)
Anne's friend who lived around the corner early on. She helped Anne write a clever verse to turn in: it was Anne's punishment paper for chattering in class. When the anti-Jewish laws had them all changing schools, she ended up in a different Jewish school than Anne but they remained friends. She was the president of their Little Bear Minus Two Club.
    She was deported to Westerbork with her parents on 20 June 1943. (Hanneli and her family were taken during the same day's raids.) The three were sent on a train to Auschwitz on 16 Nov, and gassed upon their arrival on the 19th. Her older sister survived with a false identity. (CE89 p. 185, 197: 20 and 21 June '42; MOAF p. 127; AFB p. 52, 131, 182-3, 292 [see this book for much more])

° Jew in danger   Levinson, Arthur (or Lewinsohn)
A Jewish barber and pharmacist (kind of like Mr. Gower in It's a Wonderful Life, but haircuts instead of cream sodas). He came over to the business once or twice a week to perform tests, up in the annexe kitchen. After plans for going into hiding were made, he was sent to do his work in the downstairs kitchen, next to the private office. After the fall of 1942, he no longer came to the building but he survived the war. (CE89 p. 16, HLOF p. 83; an Anne Frank researcher sent the information about his professions and this information about his sister: in the late 1930's, before the Gies moved in, Rebecca Levinson lived with Mr and Mrs Stoppelman and Mrs Stoppelman's sister, until her [Rebecca Levinson's] death on 27 Nov 1939.)

HR   "M.", Mr.
He was related to their supplies of butter, potatoes, and jam. He was arrested in March 1944. (CE89 p. 522: 10 March '44)

friendly adult   Naumann, Gertrud (died: 1 Dec 2002)
A friendly older neighbor kid in Frankfurt, the Franks kept in contact with her for several years after they moved to the Netherlands. After the war, Otto reconnected with her, and they remained friendly until his death.
    Gertrud was the youngest of six children, loved babies, and was very attentive to Margot and then Anne, who was about 13 years younger than her. Gertrud was like a member of the family, and called Otto "Papa Frank." She frequently enjoyed meals with them, got presents like any member of the family, and sometimes slept over. She even took care of Anne during a move in 1931. The Franks visited Gertrud in Frankfurt at least twice but she could not visit them (her mother was ill and her father was under Nazi attack as a Catholic and as a centrist). She and the Franks sent each other gifts and photos, too. Nazi mail censors kept them from really communicating via the mail (for instance, about her father's situation). They could only send chat. Gertrud worked as a secretary. She married Karl Trenz in 1949, and had three children. Almost every year, usually in the fall, Gertrud and her family visited Otto and Fritzi at their home in Birsfelden, Switzerland. (AF:B p. 17-18, 25-6, 73, 76, 294-5; date of death from the Anne Frank House's book, Anne Frank and Family - Photographs by Otto Frank)

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  Nieuwenburg family Wartime address: Gaaspstraat 25-3
Anne met the parents at least once: at Miep's wedding. They were Miep's foster parents.
    In December 1920, this working class family (in Leiden, the Netherlands) joined a program to feed and revitalize starving Austrian children. The war had caused years of food shortages and many children were suffering. The Nieuwenburg family had four boys and one girl and the program brought them Hermine Santrouschitz, an eleven year old girl. Her stay was to last a few months, but the doctors extended it a number of times. The family and Hermine got along very well and they soon gave her the nickname, "Miep" (a name which stuck for good). Miep also quickly took to Dutch culture and did very well in school. When she was 13, the family moved, with Miep, to South Amsterdam. In 1925, when she was 16, everyone involved agreed it was best to let her stay on for good. Miep continued to maintain long distance contact with her birth family but remained very happy in her new home. The parents hid Mrs. Stoppelman overnight in the summer of 1942 when there were a lot of raids. (AFR p. 15, 16-23, 75; in that book, they are called "Nieuwenhuis" but an Anne Frank researcher sent their real last name. Note: Gaaspstraat 25 in those days was number 12 instead.)

$   Oasis (Oase)   Address in 1939: 1 Geleenstraat
A Jewish ice cream shop and tearoom that was clearly a favorite among locals. Anne mentioned at least three visits here prior to going into hiding. (see original diary entries dated June 20th, June 30th, and July 8th: 1942; CE89 p. 185, 192, 202, 206). It was usually full of friendly acquaintances (Biography, p. 148).
    The son of the original owner emailed me that his father, Max P.J. Gallasch, founded Oasis in 1936 and the family sold it in 1951. Hans writes, "Together with Delphi and Koco … Oase was only permitted to serve Jews, until they were closed down." He also reports that Oasis still stands. Hanneli Goslar wrote in her book that in 1942 you could get an ice cream there for twelve cents (MOAF, p. 19; CE89 p. 185, 192).

$   Opekta
Abbreviated name for one of Otto's pair of companies, which is described under Gies & Co..

$   Pectacon
Abbreviated name for one of Otto's pair of companies, which is described under Gies & Co..

$   Perrij's - (Pre-war photo of Perry's)
Wartime Address: 93-99 Kalverstraat (and another branch at 6-8 Roelof Hartstraat)
A downtown department store, which was possibly where Anne's father bought the first diary. (It's also possible her diary was bought in her neighborhood, at a store then called Blankevoort.) (Anne mentions Perrij's as a place to buy diaries in CE89 p. 286: 20 Oct 1942 p. 95b; AF:B p. 139 stated the corner store is where the diary came from, but the most recent edition of that book, currently only available in Dutch, removed that information)

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Jew in danger
  Pfeffer, Friedrich "Fritz", Dr. (1 May 1889 - 20 Dec 1944)
Anne had to share a small bedroom and a small desk with this man during their two years in hiding. Various conflicts arose between them: Anne's diary has many accounts of their mutual distaste and discord. Further, the name change she chose for him was "Dussel": a dope. However, several other people (Miep, his wife, his son) later defended his character. Anne had earlier been acquainted with him and his wife because they were often guests at her parents' Saturday afternoon teas (before the anti-Jewish laws).
    He was born in Giessen, Germany. He became a dentist and had a son, Werner, who was about Anne's age. After divorcing, he had custody of Werner. In Nov 1938, he sent Werner on a children's transport to London and Fritz's brother in England looked after him for the duration of the war (though largely via boarding schools). Pfeffer also moved in late 1938, to Amsterdam, with his girlfriend, Lotte.
    Miep invited him to join those in hiding and he moved into the annexe on 16 Nov 1942. She had first met him in 1939. He worked at her dentist's office and, as mentioned, he was also a regular guest at Otto Frank's home. Pfeffer died on 20 Dec 1944, in Neuengamme concentration camp. (His son survived the war, in England, moved to the USA [California], changed his name to Peter Pepper, and had a business and a family. He died in about 1995. He was probably the Peter W. Pepper, of Playa Del Rey, California, who was born on 3 Apr 1927 and died on 15 Feb 1995.)
    (CE89 p. 16, 50; AF:B p. 188-190, 289, 295; for more final days information, see HLOF p. 195; Social Security Death Index. Regarding Werner, it seems likely he was a Kindertransport child.)

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friendly kid
Jew in danger
  Schiff, Lutz Peter (9 Sept 1926 - date unknown)
Wartime Addresses: Germany (Berlin), Netherlands (Amsterdam: Zuider Amstellaan 53-2, then on Waalstraat, until going into hiding at Amstellaan 37 III, until deported)

Anne's long term, longed for love, Peter. She called him "Petel." He was three years older than her and usually overlooked her.
    Originally from Berlin, Germany, his family (mother, stepfather, and him) moved to Amsterdam in 1939. (His biological father had emigrated to the USA in the 1930's. His parents were sent to Theresienstadt.) He was sent to Westerbork as early as September 1943, then Bergen-Belsen in February 1944, and finally to Auschwitz, where he died — date unknown. (CE89 p. 186, 202, 446-451: 20 June '42, 1 July '42, 6 Jan '44 [ver a: ver b splits it into Jan 6 and 7]; AFB p. 295-6; AFB p. 152; his Joodsmonument page; and Dutch Jewry Search)
    There is a photo of Peter in the blog.

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  Schneider, Mrs
A friend from Frankfurt who had been Anne's father's secretary there. She was married but had no children. After the Franks moved to Amsterdam, she came to visit them: there is a 1934 photo of her with them at the beach. She apparently also helped Otto's cousin escape to Luxembourg and, in the late 1930's, helped the Franks get gifts for Gertrud, a young Frankfurt family friend. (AF:B p. 18, 73, 223; AFBD p. 23)

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Jew in danger
  Schütz, Anneliese
An unemployed journalist and immigrant from Berlin, whom Otto hired to teach an informal course in German literature to the teens in the neighborhood. Margot took the course, Anne did not. However, Anne won the lead in a play that Schütz put on. Ms Schütz was deported to Theresienstadt and survived. She did the first German translation of Anne's diary. (AF:B p. 134, 297)

$   Siemons
The owner of a chain of Amsterdam bakeries. A friend of Kleiman's, they agreed on an arrangement for him to provide bread. Anne mentioned him at least once (9 May 1944): "We are going to be able to get almost 50 prewar [quality] petit fours from Siemons the baker." After the war, the debt was forgiven in full. (FAF p. 71; for other references, see the arrangements page)

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  Silberbauer, Karl Joseph (21 June 1911 - 1971 or 1972)
The uniformed SD sergeant in charge of the raid on the annexe. German, from Vienna. Miep described him as very workaday: "He looked as though he might come around tomorrow to read your gas meter or punch your tram ticket." During the raid, when he found out that Otto Frank had been an German lieutenant during WWI, he ordered that everyone take their time. He was investigated a few times but not found to have done much more than follow orders. See his life chronology. (CE89 p. 35, 45-6; AFB p. 298; FAF p. 101; Anne Frank researcher)

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Jew in danger
  Silberberg, Helmuth "Hello" Wartime Locations: Germany, Amsterdam, Brussels
Anne's most recent beau before going into hiding. He had come to see Anne on the same day that Margot got the call up notice to report to the S.S.
    Originally from Germany. In 1938, both his parents separately escaped to Belgium (illegally) and Hello moved in with his grandparents in Amsterdam. After a couple of close shaves with raiding Nazis in 1942, he escaped to Brussels. His grandparents soon went into hiding (in an attic in Amsterdam). Hello and his parents also soon went into hiding in a house near Brussels (periodically hiding in a cave and in cloister gardens). Hello got phony identification papers (becoming "Edmond Mertens") so he had some freedoms. He moved to America and died in the summer of 2015. (CE89 p. 198, 206-8: 24 June, 8 July '42 — Anne also mentions him several times in late June to early July 1942; AFB p. 150-1, 244-5, 298-9; 2005 photo; Anne Frank House website).

$   Sleegers/Slegers, Martinus (12 Aug 1885 - 20 Sept 1965) Address in 1939: Herengracht 100
The night watchman of several buildings in the Gies & Co. area. He toured the area at night on bicycle with his two dogs. After the 9 April 1944 robbery, they hired him to watch their building as well (he had called the police on that robbery). (CE89 p. 597, 599: 11 April '44; an Anne Frank researcher found out that his name was officially spelled with one "e")

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  Stoppelman, Arond (b: 29 Nov 1890; d: 1978)
A school portrait photographer who very probably knew Otto Frank through his wife, Saartje. Born on 29 November 1890. On the day of the German attack, 10 May 1940, he went to IJmuiden to see if he could say farewell to his daughter and her family, who were trying to escape the Germans. In the confusion of the ports that day, he ended up on a ship to England himself. He returned after the "Hunger Winter," soon after the war. (AFR p. 62-3 — he is called "Samson" in that book)

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Jew in danger
  Stoppelman, Meier "Max"
He was a protector and model to Peter van Pels while they were in Auschwitz. He and Otto had known Max in Amsterdam and Max's mother was Miep and Jan's landlady: there is a fair chance that Anne met him at some point before going into hiding.
    Max was a textiles businessman. During the war, business was slow and difficult, so he also worked as a courier, for the Jewish Council. In the fall of 1943, Jan found Max and his wife a hiding place in Laren. (Miep probably did not know this: her book does not mention that Jan had found them a safe place and seems to say that Jan honestly did not know where Max was when the Omnia men grilled Jan about where Max was, in the spring of 1944. In fact, it was at about that time, that Max and Stella were discovered and sent to the camps.) He survived the war and is still alive in Bussum, the Netherlands. His wife, Stella, perished. (AF:B p. 258, 299-300; AFR p. 175-6 [he is called "Mrs. Samson's son" in AFR])

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Jew in danger
  Stoppelman-van der Reis, Saartje (b: 22 June 1893; d: 1979) Address in 1939: Hunzestraat 25
A friend of Otto Frank's, she was also Miep and Jan Gies's landlady. Mrs. Stoppelman was among those in the Gies' wedding party (16 July 1941), so Anne did meet her (and there is a photo of her in AFR).
    She and her husband had a daughter, Froukje, and son, Max. In May 1940, the Germans invaded and Mr. Stoppelman was, fortunately for him, in England. Otto took out an ad to help her find a boarder, and he also told Miep about the rooms for rent. She and Jan rented the ground floor rooms soon after. Mrs Stoppelman went into hiding in Bussum or Hilversum in September 1942. She kept in touch with Miep and Jan, who were even able to visit her from time to time. (She was hidden at Karel van der Horst's mother's.)
    She survived the war. Her grandson and her son, Max, also survived. But his wife, Stella, did not. Mrs. Stoppelman's daughter, Froukje, son-in-law, and granddaughter also did not survive.
    (AFB p. 258, 300; AFR p. 62-3, 119-120 — she is called "Mrs. Samson" in that book; an Anne Frank researcher sent me much of the information above — here are more details; CE89 p. 275: 10 Oct 1942 [p.86-7 "Dearest Marianne"])

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Jew in danger
  Stoppelman, "Stella"   (died: Dec 1944?)
Max's wife. Either the Dutch Jewry Search was not complete, or perhaps "Stella" was short for Esther because there is an Esther Stoppelman whose date and place of death match what Müller put as the best guess. If so, Stella was born on 5 Feb 1920 and had lived with her parents at Rijnstraat 209 II (probably until marriage or until going into hiding) and died in Bergen-Belsen on 5 Dec 1944. (AF:B p. 300; Dutch Jewry search in memoriam; her Joodsmonument page)

friendly kid   Swillens, Rie "Iet" "Ietje" (b: 12 July 1929) Address in 1939: Zuider Amstellaan 184 hs.
Anne's frequent school companion until the schools were switched on them in 1941. She was Dutch and had very good grades. In the 1970's, she became a teacher. (AF:B p. 79, 132, 300; MOAF p. 127; Anne Frank researcher)

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Jew in danger
  van Amerongen-Frankfoorder, Rachel (b: 1914) Address in 1939: Nachtegaalstraat
Rachel first met Anne in Westerbork and again in Bergen-Belsen.
    Rachel was born in the Netherlands in 1914. She had two brothers, her father was a typographer. She worked in the Resistance getting coupons, through an inside contact, and delivering them to people in hiding. She was arrested at some point in 1944. After three weeks in prison, she was sent on to Westerbork, where she later briefly met the Franks (they were all in the prisoner barracks). Though she was on the same transport as the Franks to Auschwitz, and later arrived at Bergen-Belsen at about the same time and ended up in the same barracks, they must have moved in different groups because she was only aware of Margot's and Anne's ongoing deterioration. (Rachel was very aware of other people, probably those who were closer to her age. For example, she saw the Brilleslijper sisters daily.) Rachel then did some slave work in a town where she was able to eat more. Then she was sent on to Theresienstadt, where she was liberated.
    Rachel's parents and her brothers and their wives all perished in the camps. Her husband, Eddy, and daughter also survived. They had another child and settled in Israel in 1950. Her husband became a newspaper director and editor. (all from her interview in LSMAF)

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Jew in danger
  van der Reis, Alida  (18 Aug 1897)
Mrs. Stoppelman's sister, who lived with her. It seems likely that Anne met her before going into hiding: Anne's father was friends with Mrs Stoppelman and she lived with Miep and Jan. Since Alida did not appear in the Dutch Jewry Search, she probably survived the war (there is only a much younger woman with the same name listed there). She was not mentioned in Miep's book: a researcher sent this information.

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in Nazi club for 1.3 years
'41-2
  van Dijk, Lucia
A friend of Anne's until the schools were switched in 1941 (due to the anti-Jewish laws). Before that, Lucia's parents joined the NSB (Dutch Nazi Party), her mother proudly wearing an NSB pin. Anne's father told Anne it could be just a social club: not all NSB members were bad, just had bad political ideas (he himself employed two NSB members). After the school switch, Lucia was enrolled in a sort of Dutch Nazi Youth group (Jeugdstorm), complete with uniform. Her grandmother did not approve and Lucia herself felt uneasy about it all. She quit the group in late 1942 — her father had quit the NSB the previous August. (He died in 1944. Her mother did not quit the NSB but was not punished, like many NSB members were.) After completing school, Lucia did secretarial work, married in 1955, and had two sons. She lives in Amsterdam. (AF:B p. 132-3, 269-270; see also HLOF about Otto's wartime perspective on NSB members)

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van Hoeve, Hendrik
The greengrocer around the corner to the north of the annexe, on Leliegracht (#58) who supplied their potatoes and vegetables. He kept a Jewish couple hidden in his home. He was a resistance worker: he helped other people who were in hiding elsewhere and put up anti-Nazi posters. Passing on the street one night he very likely saw the men of the secret annexe, during a robbery at the building. He said nothing but later mentioned that he guesses a lot. He delivered a lot of food (via handcart, using a list of addresses) to the Gies & Co. building right at lunch when the warehousemen were gone.
    But, on 25 May 1944, he was discovered by the authorities and taken away with the two people he'd been keeping in hiding. His wife then helped Gies & Co. a bit with getting food. Someone had fingered the group of over 100 resistance workers he was in. Only five of them survived. He survived four or five concentration camps, with debilitating damage to his legs from freezing on the trains. The two Jews he'd kept hidden did not survive. He appeared in the 1959 movie, The Diary of Anne Frank, portraying himself. (CE89 p. 592, 598, 659, 661, 687: 11 April '44, 25 and 26 May '44, 8 July '44; HLOF p. 335; AFR p. 121; Frank House CD-ROM; FAF p. 72-73 — * this reference lists five places he was sent to, perhaps all were concentration camps: Vught, Oranienburg, Gross-Rosen, Dora, and Winsleben am See)

$   van Maaren, Wilhelm "Willem" Gerardus "Gerard" (10 Aug 1895 - 28 Nov 1971) Address in 1939: Kouterstraat 9
The new head warehouseman, replacing Bep Voskuijl's father when he went to the hospital ill, in the spring of 1943. He was probably stealing from the start. He was curious about the back part of the building and also found v. Pels wallet and wanted to know who it belonged to. He set up trips and soon deduced that people were in the warehouse at night. He always denied tipping off the authorities and there was never real evidence that he was the one who did. Died in 1971. (CE89 p. 21, 29-44, 405, 616, 618: 16 Sept '43, 21 April '44, 25 April '44; AFB p. 294; HLOF p. 336; AF:B p. 218; see also the early 2003 investigation)

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Jew in danger
  van Maarsen, Jacqueline "Jacque" Yvonne Meta (born: 30 Jan 1929)
1937 Address: Albrecht Dürerstraat 40

Friend of Anne's, the one whose puberty started earlier. She was the secretary of their Little Bear Minus Two Club. She survived the war by getting an "Aryan" identification card. She is still alive and regularly travels to speak at schools and has written books about Anne which I have not read yet. (CE89 p. 185: 20 June 1942; MOAF p. 126; AFB p. 254, 294; Online Interview with Miep Gies)

Jacque in 2009


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Jew in danger
  van Pels, Auguste "Gusti" (nee Röttgen) (29 Sept 1900 - spring 1945)
Hermann van Pels' wife. Lived in hiding with the Franks. Birthday: 29 Sept. Died between 9 April and 8 May, 1945, in Germany or Czechoslovakia, probably as a prisoner (unless she escaped) having already been taken to four concentration camps. (CE89 p. 52; HLOF p. 195)

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Jew in danger
  van Pels, Hermann (31 May 1899 - fall 1944)
Wartime Addresses: Germany, then Amsterdam: Zuider Amstellaan 34-II, Biesbosstraat 59 (until going into hiding)

Otto's business partner involved in diversifying Opekta's sales into spices, starting in the summer of 1938. He and his family hid with the Franks in the secret annexe starting on 13 July 1942.
    Hermann's ancestors were Dutch, but he grew up in Germany. He was a gregarious heavy smoker. He and his family had lived in Osnabrück, Germany. He had worked with his father as suppliers of spices and other things for butchers and meatpackers. He and his wife and boy fled to Amsterdam in 1937. After the raid on the annexe, he was sent to Westerbork with the rest and then on to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. He was gassed, probably in early October, 1944. (CE89 p. 8-9, 50; AFB p. 93, 259)

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Jew in danger
  van Pels, Peter (8 Nov 1926 - May 1945)
Anne became close to him in hiding and probably again at Westerbork. He was the first boy Anne kissed: right there in hiding. He was the van Pels' son. Before going into hiding, he was in Anne's circle of friendly acquaintances (he gave her a milk chocolate bar for her birthday).
    He had lived in Germany until he was eleven, in 1938, when his family fled to Amsterdam. He and his parents lived in hiding with the Franks and Pfeffer, in the secret annexe. In Auschwitz, he befriended Max Stoppelman and later was attentive to Anne's father, in the Auschwitz "hospital." Peter died on 5 May 1945, in Mauthausen concentration camp, three days before that camp's liberation. However, because some online sources say Mauthausen was liberated on 5 May, I wonder if he died on 2 May. (CE89 p. 52, 93, 186, 607: 20 June 1942 [d1, p11], 16 Apr 1944 [d3, p 198]; HLOF p. 195; AF:B p. 258)

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  Voskuijl, Elisabeth "Bep" (5 July 1919 - 6 May 1983) Address in 1939: Lumeijstraat 18-2
Quiet secretary and all around help in Gies & Co. Started working there in 1937. She visited the group hiding in the annexe every workday (and once spent the night there, in Oct 1942, on an air mattress). She smuggled the office milk allotment to them, she enrolled Margot in a correspondence school shorthand course under her (Bep's) name, and, like Miep, brought the girls hand-me-downs. (CE89 p. 9; AF:B p. 177; FAF p. 86)

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  Voskuijl, Johannes "Johan" Hendrik (15 Jan 1892 - Nov 1945) Address in 1939: Lumeijstraat 18-2
Bep's father. He was "deeply attached" to Otto Frank, knowing him a long time. Johan was the head warehouseman until he went to the hospital ill in the spring of 1943. He had built the bookcase door. Died of cancer in late Nov 1945. (CE89 p. 16, 230: 21 Aug '42; AFB p. 225, 300; FAF p. 111; HLOF says he died in December: p. 338; AFR p. 207 — he is called "Hans Vossen" in that book)

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Jew in danger
  Wagner, Ilse (26 Jan 1929 - 2 Apr 1943) Address in 1939: Grevelingenstraat 11-II
Ilse was a friend of Anne's, the member of the Little Bear Minus Two Club who had a ping pong set. She was also from Germany (born in Hamburg). In January 1943, she was arrested and sent to Westerbork. She, her mother, and grandmother were deported to Sobibor and gassed upon their arrival on 2 April 1943. (AF:B p. 142, 301; see also the Joodsmonument page for this address — it looks as if her father had been deported and killed a few months earlier, and then her aunt and uncle, who also lived with them, were killed in Sobibor in April 1943.)

friendly kid   Wagner, Juanita Wartime Location: Danville, Iowa, USA
Anne wrote at least one letter to this American girl (on 29 April 1940). Juanita's older sister, Betty Ann, was Margot's pen pal. The Wagners were Iowa farm girls. Both Frank girls wrote to them in English, with Otto's help. The Wagner's replies to the two Frank girls' late April 1940 letters did not reach them, due to the German occupation, which started with the invasion on 10 May 1940. The Wagners held onto those late April letters from Amsterdam and learned from Otto of Anne's and Margot's deaths after the war. Those letters from the Franks are now either in the Anne Frank Foundation archives, in Amsterdam, or in the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles. There is detailed information about the penpal arrangements at elsewhere online. (AF:B p. 100 and note for page 100; HLOF p. 198)

 
Note: Otto Frank owned two companies, but they used the same staff and, in 1941, folded them into one. I refer to his companies as if they were one: Gies & Co.

 
 
References:
Unfortunately, I did not always note the page numbers. Of course, some facts above are fleshed out in the diary: for example that someone was a helper. Also, Anne talks generally about her family's history on these pages of The Critical Edition (1989): 182-4 (20 June '42), 189 (16 June '42), and 636 (8 May '44).

Birth and death dates of family members often came from the family tree in the front of the Müller book. The Dutch Jewry Search was also helpful for such dates. In addition, some details, especially the non-family birth dates and wartime addresses of people infrequently discussed in books, came from a very helpful Anne Frank researcher. I did not always note this reference. Those bits of information usually originally came from, among other sources, the "Gemeente Archief Amsterdam, Family registration cards, dated 1938, on microfilm." There is an online version (in Dutch).

If you are going to try to find the addresses, check if their names have changed at the bottom of this page.

The following references have even more people and more information (they form an overlapping superset with this page of people).
    The Diary of Anne Frank: the Critical Edition. Both Anne Frank's diary and the introductory articles. I am talking about the 1989 edition. I understand there are more recent editions.

    Anne Frank Magazine 1999 by the Anne Frank Foundation (page 52-55). Most of the information on the Holländers came from this source. Thanks to Whee Ky Ma (creator: The Anne Frank Internet Guide, which no longer exists) for translating this information and sending it to me!

    Memories of Anne Frank: Reflections of a Childhood Friend Hanneli Goslar information.

    Anne Frank Remembered: the Story of the Woman who Helped to Hide the Frank Family, by Miep Gies with Alison Leslie Gold.

    Anne Frank: Beyond the Diary I could only find some people's full names in here.

    The Hidden Life of Otto Frank, by Carol Ann Lee. I could only find some other people's full names in here. See pages 333-8 for the names of other people closely tied to Otto's life and lifetime, including more of the people who were involved in the diary's publication and dramatic adaptations.

    Anne Frank: the Biography, by Melissa Müller. Has much more detailed information on the lives of several of the people in Anne's life, especially in the list at the back of the book. Further, the extensive family tree (toward the very front of the book) has birth dates and birthplaces of most of the Frank-Höllander family.

    Treasures from the Attic: the Extraordinary Story of Anne Frank's Family, by Mirjam Pressler. Tells the story of Otto Frank's side of the family all the way back to the 1800s, with more general information back to the 1600s. Very well written and interesting.

    Footsteps of Anne Frank, by Ernst Schnabel, 1958. Unfortunately, this reference predominantly uses pseudonyms and initials instead of real names, but some other facts come from there.

    The NIOD's early 2003 report, "Who Betrayed Anne Frank?" has a good deal of information about things related to some people and also the raid (early 2003; a Microsoft .DOC file, 190K)

    The Associated Press (AP) article mentioned appeared in The Rocky Mountain News on 4 May 2002, page 21A. There is not a copy online.

Resources


Relevant Street Name Changes since the War (see also map)

  • Noorder Amstellaan is now Churchillaan
  • Zuider Amstellaan is now Rooseveltlaan
  • Amstellaan is now Vrijheidslaan
  • Daniel Willinkplein is now Victorieplein
  • Euterpestraat is now Gerrit van der Veenstraat
potential tripping stone (Stolpersteine) locations

 
 

Last Modified: 1 Aug 2016